About Kitaw

Kitaw works in Geneva for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the United Nations specialized agency for Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).

Born and raised in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, he holds an MBA in Management of Technology from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and is a part-time PhD Fellow in Governance and Policy Analysis at the University of Maastricht – UNU-MERIT.

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Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this blog and extracts of research work are solely those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the official position of his employer and the academic institutions he is affiliated with.

ITU World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC-21) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

by Yayeh KITAW (Kitaw Yayehyirad KITAW)

Last year, in February 2019, ITU Secretary-General Houlin Zhao and ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau Director Doreen Bogdan-Martin met in Addis Abeba with H.E. Sahle-Work Zewde, President of Ethiopia to discuss Ethiopia’s expression of interest in hosting the World Telecommunication Development Forum (WTDC-21) in Addis Ababa for the first time on African soil.


Last year, in June 2019, Ethiopia’s invitation to host the 2021 World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC-21), presented by H.E Getahun Mekuria, the then Minister of Innovation and Technology of Ethiopia, was received with thankful messages and unanimous support by ITU Council Member States in the presence of Ambassador Zenebe Kebede. The newly appointed Minister H.E Abrham Belay followed up on Ethiopia’s commitment making the opening remarks of Telecommunication Development Advisory Group (TDAG) in June 2020.


Last week, in October 2020, the organizing team of ITU and the Government of Ethiopia conducted a fruitful meeting in the presence of State Minister H.E. Ahmedhin Mohammed, to make the World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC-21) a truly African and development focused one.


As Addis Ababa (New Flower in Amharic), capital city of Ethiopia, African “hub” of opportunities, is preparing to host this important conference from 8th to 19th November 2021, ITU member states and all stakeholders are organizing Regional Preparatory Meetings for WTDC-21 to effectively and efficiently provide future direction and guidance to the ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D).

This important conference comes

as Ethiopia,

  • member of the League of Nations in 1923
  • founding member of the United Nations in 1945;
  • first sub-Saharan country to join the International Telecommunication Union in 1932;
  • home to the Economic Commission for Africa since 1958 and the African Union since 1963 and to ITU’s Africa Regional Office since 1992;

is undergoing a profound transformation, placing Digital Connectivity through its strategy at DigitalEthiopia.info in a wider framework of socio economic objectives of its homegrown economic reform agenda under the government led by H.E. Prime Minister Abiy, whose efforts were recognized through the award of the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize.

has promisingly started to liberalize the telecommunications sector, creating a new regulator and continuing plans to partially privatize Ethio Telecom, one of the world’s largest state-owned monopoly in the second most populous African Country.

as Africa, is striving to implement the African Union Commission’s comprehensive Digital Transformation Strategy for Africa, which was developed in collaboration with the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), Smart Africa, AUDA-NEPAD, Regional Economic Communities, the African Development Bank, Africa Telecommunications Union, Africa Capacity Building Foundation, International Telecommunication Union and the World Bank.

as the World, has all eyes rived on the Covid-19 pandemic’s second wave and exploring how Connectivity can help in recovering and building back better,

as the World marks the start of the Decade of Action to deliver the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, endeavouring to use digital technologies and Internet connectivity to accelerate efforts to achieve each of the 17 SDGs.

as the World with 46% of its unconnected inhabitants, needs US$ 428 billion to connect the remaining 3 billion (nearly half of the global population) by 2030 as estimated by ITU’s ‘Connecting Humanity’,

as the World is shifting from analog to digital faster than ever before, further exposing us to the vast promise and peril of new technologies as outlined in the United Nations Secretary-General’s Roadmap for Digital Cooperation.

as ITU, its Telecommunication Development Sector and Advisory Body, the Telecommunication Development Advisory Group (TDAG) are discussing reforms of the World Telecommunication Development Conference in 2021 to be a solutions-based conference that addresses the real challenges in the development of telecommunications/ICTs and make it a landmark conference.

WTDC-21 offers an invaluable opportunity for all stakeholders including ITU member states, private sector members of ITU-D, regional development banks and telecom organizations to work together in this unprecedented era and provide direction to the ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) through an Addis Action plan 2022-2025.

As we prepare to conduct a virtual signing ceremony of host country agreement with Ethiopia on the 9th of November 2020, we remain hopeful that the pandemic situation will allow a physical WTDC-21, on the land of 13th Months of Sunshine (Ethiopia) , from 8th to 19th November 2021 as planned! 

Digital Cooperation – Action Today for Future Generations

Doreen Bogdan-Martin, Director Telecommunication Development Bureau, ITU with H.E. Sahle-Work Zewde, President of Ethiopia

On the 23rd of September 2020, in conjunction with the 75th Anniversary of the United Nations, UNICEF, the International Telecommunication Union, UNDP, and the Office of the Special Adviser to the Secretary-General, on Digital Cooperation, working together with other UN partners convened a High-Level Digital Cooperation event, focused on concrete actions to safeguard the technological era for future generations. It is our global shared responsibility to find a path forward and to build back better digitally.

The panel included H.E. Sahle-Work Zewde, President of Ethiopia, H.E. Paula Ingabire, Minister of ICT & Innovation, on behalf of H.E. Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Inventor of the World Wide Web and was moderated by Doreen Bogdan-Martin, Director Telecommunication Development Bureau, ITU

“Ethiopia places Digital Connectivity in a wider context of socio economic objectives of its homegrown economic reform agenda”

“At the multilateral level, we need to identify mechanisms to ensure that digital technologies are used in a way that optimally shows their promising, bright and positive applications”

H.E. Sahle-Work Zewde, President of Ethiopia at the High Level Meeting organized by UNICEF, the International Telecommunication Union, UNDP, and the Office of the Special Adviser to the Secretary-General, in conjunction with the 75th Anniversary of the United Nations.

My Notes on the Roundtable discussion on “The Future of Internet Governance in Geneva”

With the launch of the report “Geneva and Internet Governance”, the Geneva Foundation and the Centre for Trade and Economic Integration (The Graduate Institute, Geneva) have organized a roundtable discussion with’ a panel of experts including. The objective was to discuss the issues and challenges of Internet governance and the role that Geneva could play in this area.

Here are some of my takeaways for recollection purpuses.

From “Tech for Good” to “Good in Tech” – Marie-Laure Salles , Director, The Graduate Institute, Geneva.

Continue reading “My Notes on the Roundtable discussion on “The Future of Internet Governance in Geneva””

The pandemic effect on Freedom whilst 46% of the World is still offline

Back in November 2019, the release on the same day of two flagship reports on the Internet had prompted me to write an article under the title ‘Connecting the next 46%: Time to pick the Good from the Bad and the Ugly”. I was then prudently asking whether ‘the more we connect the world, the less free it becomes?‘.

Who would have known that a pandemic would erupt few months later unveiling different perspectives in assessing that very same question?

Continue reading “The pandemic effect on Freedom whilst 46% of the World is still offline”

86% = 0% : pour commencer d’en finir avec l’équation inéquitable du Nil pour l’Éthiopie

Par Kitaw Yayehyirad KITAW

Alors que le monde a les yeux rivés sur la pandémie Covid-19, ce juillet 2020 annonce le début de la fin d’une injustice séculaire sur l’utilisation des eaux du Nil. Ce fleuve légendaire, souvent cité comme nourricier des grandes civilisations du delta, a manqué de récits mentionnant l’Éthiopie, pourtant source de 86% des eaux du Nil dont elle utilise 0%. L’Éthiopie, à l’aube du nouveau millénaire selon son calendrier, s’est enfin attelé avec détermination à faire usage de ces eaux pour son développement, sous le principe d’utilisation équitable et raisonnable. Les éthiopiens, d’ici et d’ailleurs, se mobilisent dans une campagne de sensibilisation à l’égard du droit de l’Éthiopie sur le Nil sous le hashtag #NileForEthiopia alors que leur pays a commencé le remplissage du réservoir du Grand barrage de la Renaissance sous le gouvernement mené par le Premier ministre Abiy, lauréat du prix Nobel de la paix de 2019

L’Éthiopie, véritable château d’eau du Nil, fournit 86% du débit avec le Nil bleu (Abbay), l’Atbara et une partie du Sobat, le reste provenant des huit autres pays riverains et le Soudan
Continue reading “86% = 0% : pour commencer d’en finir avec l’équation inéquitable du Nil pour l’Éthiopie”

Connecting the next 46 per cent: Time to pick the Good from the Bad and the Ugly

By Kitaw Yayehyirad KITAW (Yayeh KITAW) –  7 November 2019
PhD Fellow in Governance and Policy Analysis

This blog note has also been published on CircleID in January 2020.

Digital Development and Freedom on the Net

On the 5th of November 2019, the release of the first of ITU’s Measuring Digital Development series coincided with Freedom House’s unveiling of its Freedom on Net 2019 report. This serendipity prompted me to write this blog note after carefully examining both reports.

On one hand, ITU’s analytical publication, with its new friendly format, emphasizes that Internet use continues to spread, warning however that the digital gender gap is widening. The estimated 4.1 billion people using the Internet in 2019 reflect a 5.3 per cent increase, confirming the trend of slowing global growth rates. More men than women use the Internet in every region of the world except the Americas, which has near-parity and 97​ per cent of the world population now lives within reach of a mobile cellular signal, reveals the report, offering interesting snapshots of other important ICT indicators. With its global and regional perspectives, ITU’s Facts and Figures 2019 also recalls that most of the offline population (46 per cent of the world population) lives in least developed countries, Europe and Africa having the highest and lowest Internet usage rates, respectively.

On the other hand, the Freedom on the Net 2019 focusing on ‘the Crisis of Social Media’ comments that the Internet, once a liberating technology, has opened new conduits for surveillance and electoral manipulation. Internet Freedom Declines outnumber gains for the ninth consecutive year with Ethiopia recording the largest gains in 2019 following the election of a new Prime Minister Dr Abiy Ahmed, winner of the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize, who loosened restrictions on the Internet and unblocked 260 websites. “Digital platforms are the new battleground for democracy and Internet freedom is increasingly imperiled by the tools and tactics of digital authoritarianism” notes the report recalling that of the 65 countries assessed, 33 have been on an overall decline since June 2018. The future of Internet freedom rests on our ability to fix social media, predicts the report offering series of recommendations to ‘fairly’ regulate a technology now pervasive in business, politics and personal lives.

The more we connect the World, the less free it becomes?

Continue reading “Connecting the next 46 per cent: Time to pick the Good from the Bad and the Ugly”

Ethiopia recorded the biggest improvement worldwide in the 2019 Internet Freedom scores

By Kitaw Yayehyirad KITAW (Yayeh KITAW)
Founder and Director CyberEthiopia.com
PhD Fellow in Governance and Policy Analysis

Ethiopia saw an 11 point improvement in its internet freedom score recording the biggest improvement this year in Freedom House’s Freedom on the Net Index.

The April 2018 appointment of Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed led to an ambitious reform agenda that loosened restrictions on the internet. Abiy’s government unblocked 260 websites, including many known to report on critical political issues.

CyberEthiopia.com was one of first blocked websites in the initial wave of censorship in 2006 and unblocked in 2018 after 12 years of restriction.

Continue reading “Ethiopia recorded the biggest improvement worldwide in the 2019 Internet Freedom scores”

My notes during the public lecture on ‘Digital Cooperation: Can Geneva Make It a Win-Win?’

Insightful and thought provoking discussions among distinguished panel members:

  • Brad Smith, president of Microsoft;
  • Doris Leuthard, former president of the Swiss Confederation;
  • Amandeep Singh Gill, former co-executive director of the High-level Panel on Digital Cooperation’s Secretariat;
  • Jovan Kurbalija, head of the Geneva Internet Platform and former Co-Executive Director, Secretariat of the High-level Panel on Digital Cooperation

Amidst the conversations on the role of Geneva in Digital Cooperation, it was mentioned that:

  • the Swiss Digital Initiative (including GAFAM) to promote ethics in the digital world will to be officially launched on World Economic Forum 2020
  • Geneva is where ‘Technology meets Humanity’ referring to the early technologies, the birth of the Red Cross
  • ‘De-ideologizing’ the issue of data which ranges from private data, scientific data, business data and that emphasis on those specificities is important when discussing regulation on data
  • Inclusiveness is one of the most pressing challenge in view of ‘not missing out on opportunities’
  • only 5% of articles about Africa on Wikipedia are written by Africans yet optimism was echoed about Africa’s growth and digital transformation

Interestingly, alluding to the Cloud Act (a United States federal law enacted in 2018) and bilateral agreements, @Jovan Kurbalija referred to the creation of the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in 1865 after bilateral agreements could not properly address issues relating to Telegraph Exchanges. The International Telegraph Convention was indeed a precursor of multilateralism, many decades before the creation of the League of Nations.

The recording can be found here .

Y. Kitaw
PhD Fellow in Governance and Policy Analysis at UNU-MERIT Maastricht University
Personal website: kitaw.info | LinkedIn  | Twitter

Geneva Cybersecurity Law & Policy Conference – Notes

My notes during the afternoon session of the Geneva Cybersecurity Law & Policy Conference – June 21, 2018. Views are my own and posted for recollection purposes.

The Geneva Cybersecurity Law & Policy Conference, organized in the framework of a research project between the University of Geneva and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, aimed at presenting selected legal and policy aspects of cybersecurity in a crosscutting approach.

Here are some of my main takeaways from the afternoon session on “The Future of Cybersecurity: Artificial Intelligence and other Challenges”.

    • There are still many known unknowns with regards to potential new threats in the Global Cybersecurity landscape with the advent of AI (and other related trends in Big Data and IoTs)
    • There is an understanding of the apparent dual-use of AI (i.e. used toward beneficial and harmful ends) What unique legal, ethical and other challenges, if any, does AI pose as a dual-use technology?
    • There is still lack/absence of data to conduct evidence based academic research and policy making relating to AI and Cybersecurity. Assessment of AI-based attacks/threats and their impact on Cybersecurity is still work in progress. As of today, there is no publicly documented evidence of AI-based attacks.
    • Novel type of attacks (e.g. causing autonomous vehicles to crash, swarm of micro-drones) could lead to fatal casualties taking away human lives unlike the ‘traditional’ Cybersecurity threats known today with limited or no vital consequences.
    • There are concerns about policy choices made today with regards to AI that may affect future generations (analogous to the Climate Change).
    • There is a need to examine what is working and what is not in the various models of ‘multiskaholderism’ and how multi-disciplinary competencies could be built very early in education of the digital natives. (e.g. the need to have legal and ethics modules in Computer Sciences and Engineering curricula and vice-versa)
    • Civil Liability for Cyberattacks may face additional complexities with increased anonymity and difficulty to attribute attacks that are based on AI. New challenges in the legal aspects could emerge as malicious actors may exploit vulnerabilities of AI systems through new dimensions such as data poisoning, machine learning and related algorithms etcetera.

Y. Kitaw
PhD Fellow in Governance and Policy Analysis at UNU-MERIT Maastricht University
Personal website: kitaw.info | LinkedIn  | Twitter

Reflections on ICTs, the SDGs and innovation adoption – Tim Unwin

Former Secretary-General of the CTO shares his views on ‘ the contrast between attending a series of side events around the UN General Assembly in New York immediately following a marvellous two weeks in India has made me reflect again on the rhetoric and reality of using ICTs for development, especially in the interests of the poorest and most marginalised”

The reflections provide interesting figures on ‘Connecting the next billion’  as well as the views of a Maasai chief in Tanzania on why he has no reason to be online.

See ​https://unwin.wordpress.com/2017/09/26/reflections-on-icts-the-sdgs-and-innovation-adoption/

On the 2017 General Assembly of United Nations …

A premier at this 2017 United Nations General Assembly was the United Nations Secretary-General live apperance on Facebook and taking questions for his first time

https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10155803213795820&id=54779960819

Also, the United Nations Deputy Secretary-General was live on a panel last night to discuss the path ahead for the Global Goals.

https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10155191106266026&id=260097656025

Interestingly, when asked about one particular field where the ‘Digital World’ (in other words – ICTs) can specially speed up the attainment of the SDGs, she singles out ‘Digital Finance’  as an investment to the SDGs themselves. (Forward to 3:50 min)

She also gave tips on the inclusion of women and the youth in the Digital World.

Also insightful are the live updates, analysis and highlights of the Wall Street Journal​

Comments on the report- Fast forward progress: leveraging tech to achieve the global goals

A well written report compiled by ITU and a collaborative effort between 29 UN programmes, specialized agencies and international organizations.

While offering insights into the risks and opportunities in using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, it also cautiously refers to other elements to be considered in effectively embracing the potential of global connectivity to spur human progress.

Another element to be considered in the advancement of ICT services is the issue of democracy, human rights, individual freedom and the right to privacy. Literature is rife with references to dystopian risks associated to the authoritarian control of ICTs (e.g. Huxley, Orwell). But reality has also provided clear examples of wrong-doing as frightening as the nightmares of fantasy. Espionage, manipulation of social media and other malpractices can become systemic risks of this technology. We cannot rule out at a certain point the emergence of a minority refusing to enter into any contact at all with ICTs, as a reaction to any unethical excesses. Time will tell how an open, democratic and liberal society will protect itself from such abuses.

Time will also tell how authoritarian regimes will apply more and more restrictive measures on ICTs and misuse them due to fear of power replacement against some of SDGs.

Track the Progress of AI and Machine Learning

This project of the EFF on measuring the progress of AI Research  (collectively elaborated through a notebook is hosted on Github) collects problems and metrics/datasets from the AI research literature, and tracks progress on them.

It is indeed a promising pilot to answer questions like:

  • What is the ratio of hype to real progress in AI?
  • What kinds of problems have been well solved by current machine learning techniques, which ones are close to being solved, and which ones remain exceptionally hard?
  • And if the project is well followed up in the future : to what extent can such progress be used to foster social and economic development globally?

The pilot is using interesting methodologies that can help in understanding the current state of these technologies and raise meangful debate around the technical, political and legal issues and dilemmas they raise.

A promising start in defining metrics that could be enhanced with additional stakeholders’ perspectives including linkges to ‘AI for development’

Let us not forget that AI and machine learning methods can threaten safety of citizens particularly if in the hands of oppressive regimes which may raise wider and vital concerns than mere violation of privacy.

The Truth About Blockchain

A very insightful​ article on Blockchain on the Harvard Business Review (Jan-Feb 2017 Edition)​ analysing parallels between blockchain and TCP/IP, patterns of Technology Adoption and transformation processes of foundational technologies.

In essence, Blockchain is to Transactions what TCP/IP is to the Data Transport on the Internet.

For those who knew about TCP/IP way before the Internet, the article​ should be an eye opener on the promises of Blockchain.

Also, CryptoCoinsNews announced this week that Bitcoin made History at the beginning of 2017​, surpassing the value of the oldest money on earth: gold.